4/4, 5/4, 6/4, Etc.

Measurements

Wood industry terms for the thickness of a piece of lumber (in inches). Therefore, a 1 inch thick piece lumber would be 4/4” (four quarter), a two inch thick piece of lumber would be 8/4” (eight quarter).

Annual Ring

General

Annual increment of wood as it appears on a cross-section; same as growth ring.

Antique Timber

Wood Species / Type

Any and all timber and lumber that is reclaimed from old barns, industrial buildings, rural structures and any other heavily built structures built from old-growth wood.

Antique Timber Grades

Wood Grades

Bark

General

The outermost cells on the stem, branches and twigs of trees; these leathery, corky cells have two layers, outer and inner, which are more or less distinct.

Barn Wood Siding

Wood Species / Type

Wide, thin boards used to cover (protect) the interior of a barn and its contents (or inhabitants) from the elements. Barn siding usually tends to be 1 inch thickness or less and can vary greatly in widths and lengths. Barn siding carries the burden (and beauty) of years of earth, rain and sunshine to create a uniquely aged wood. Colors vary from yellow to red to green, with the majority of barn siding being red, white, or natural.

Bevel

Wood Working Terms

The angle created where two surfaces meet, but not at a right angle.

Board Foot (Bd/Ft)

Measurements

The standard industry unit for wood volumes measuring 12”x12”x1” dimensions (three dimensional measurement).

Branding Iron

Tools

Once it has been heated, the head of a branding iron – which has writing, numbers, or pattern in relief – is pressed against a wooden object to burn an image or mark into the wood. Originally, the head was attached to a long iron handle and heated over fire; modern branding irons are heated with electricity.

Cabinet Lumber

Wood Species / Type

Rough sawn from beams and dimensional lumber, then kiln dried, cabinet lumber is used for cabinetry, doors, trim work or any other application where remilled lumber less than 2” thick is desired.

Calibrations

General

Markings made at set graduations to be used for measuring.

Cat’s Paw

Tools

A tool for the home renovator, the cat’s paw is a pry bar, with one standard head. The second head, however, has a wafer-thin tip that’s perfect for precisely and delicately easing apart adjacent surfaces without damaging them.

Chainsaw

Tools

As its name implies, this portable power saw has a blade in the shape of a chain with cutting teeth. The chain rotates around a steel guide bar as it makes a cut. The saw may run on gas or electricity. This is a powerful tool and can be dangerous in the wrong hands. It should be used only by those confident of their skills and always with care.

Chamfer

Wood Working Terms

The angle created when two surfaces on a board meet at a 45-degree angle.

Chattering

Wood Working Terms

The noise created by vibration when using a tool on a work piece. This is a sign that the tool, especially a large power tool such as a table saw, is being used incorrectly.

Cleaned

General

Antique lumber/timber that is cleaned of all metal and debris (de-nailing).

Cooperage

Wood Working Terms

In wood products, relates to wooden barrels, either liquid tight or “slack.

Countersink (Verb)

Wood Working Terms

To make a screw hole wider at the top to accept a screw head, so the screw sits flush or below the work surface.

Cross Section

General

Section of wood cut at right angles to the grain.

Cupping

General

Warping of the face of a board so that it assumes a trough-like shape.

Custom Molding

Wood Species / Type

A decorative wood strip used for ornamentation or finishing along ceilings, floors or any general edge work on the interior or exterior of a structure.

Cypress Tank Stock

Wood Species / Type

VINTAGE CYPRESS TANK STOCK, SALVAGED FROM DISMANTLED PICKLE TANKS.
TANK STOCK MAY HAVE ANY OR ALL OF THE FOLLOWING AS EVIDENCE OF PRIOR HISTORY:
Painted or unpainted, rough sawn or surfaced;
Nail holes, bolt holes, notches, stain, checking, random dowel holes on edges;
Torn or missing edges, and other character marks. Allowing up to 7/8″ under dimension.

Dado

Wood Working Terms

A rectangular groove, into which other work is inserted to form a joint.

Density of Wood

General

The mass of wood per unit volume.

Dimensional Lumber

Wood Cuts

Any antique lumber reclaimed from old barns or structures that measures up to two inches in thickness.

Dovetail

Wood Working Terms

A flared end, designed to fit into a similar shape recess, often used in a set to form a dovetail joint.

Dry Fitting

Wood Working Terms

To assemble parts without glue or fasteners previous to installation, bringing to light any needed corrections before it is too late.

Durability

General

The ability of the wood to withstand wood-destroying fungi when exposed to conditions favorable to decay. A prime consideration in the use of wood in some situations.

End Cut

Wood Cuts

The squaring of the end of a board to remove unusable materials and reduce fitting and cutting times.

Feed

Wood Working Terms

The careful movement of the work piece toward a cutter or blade.

Fence

Tools

An adjustable guide used in conjunction with a tool to control the movement of the work piece.

Figure

General

Generally, any design or distinctive markings on the longitudinal surfaces of wood; specifically, any designs in wood that are prized in use of the wood.

Flat Sawn

Wood Cuts

Said of wood sawed so that the tangential face is exposed on the surfaces of boards; plain sawn.

Grain of Wood

General

Arrangement and direction of wood elements when considered en masse.

Growth Ring

General

Ring of wood on a cross-section resulting from periodic growth; if only one growth ring is formed during a year it is called an annual ring.

Hand Hewn (Hand Adzed)

Finishes

Any beam that was squared and shaped using a broad adzing axe. Hand Hewn beam surfaces retain chipping characteristics and produce a very unique and nostalgic look.

Hardwood

Wood Species / Type

Wood produced by broad-leaved trees such as oak, elm, and ash; same as porous wood.

Heartwood

Wood Species / Type

Dead inner core of a woody stem (or log) generally distinguishable from the outer portion (sapwood) by its darker color.

Interlocked Grain

Wood Working Terms

Grain in which the direction of the fiber alignment alternates at intervals, resulting in ribbon figured when wood is quarter-sawn. Makes wood very difficult to split.

Jig

Tools

Either a homemade or manufactured device to hold a tool in the same position for repetitive operations or to cut numerous work pieces to the same size.

Kerf

Wood Working Terms

The cut made by a saw. Because saw teeth are set at an angle, the kerf will be wider than the blade.

Kickback

General

The violent motion that occurs when the blade or cutter on a power tool throws the work backward, toward the woodworker, or when a jammed blade or cutter causes the tool to jump backward.

Line Rip

Wood Cuts

Sawing the edge of a board to create a glue line finish and clean edge (applicable to barn siding and dimensional lumber).

Linear Foot (L/Ft)

Measurements

The standard unit if measurement for any product measuring 12” in length (one dimensional measurement). Thickness and widths of any products charged by the linear foot are standardized (see charges per linear foot for hand hewn beams or custom moldings).

Mantel Grade

Wood Grades

Small, Well-Scattered Knots
Regular drying checks, seasoning checks possible
Mixed Grain
Nail holes, Nail Stain
Rows of nail holes/nail stains on one edge only

Mineral Stain

General

Olive and greenish-black streaks believed to designate areas of abnormal concentration of mineral matter; common in hard maple, hickory and basswood. Also called mineral streak.

Miter

Wood Cuts

The joint created when the ends of the two work pieces are cut at the same beveled angle, often – but not always – at 45 degrees.

Moisture Content of Wood

General

The weight of the moisture in wood, expressed as a percentage of its oven-dry weight.

Mortise

Wood Working Terms

A rectangular hole cut into a work piece to accept a matching tenon.

Nail Puller

Tools

An embedded nail is difficult to remove with a normal claw hammer. The nail puller has a V-notch, which slips under the nail head and a long handle to provide extra leverage to pull up the nail.

Old Growth Urban Timber

Wood Species / Type

Wood products manufactured from trees that are felled by either natural causes (tornadoes, ice storms, etc.) or removed from housing developments/landscaping and are reclaimed, milled and utilized for their value as opposed to ending up in a landfill.

Old Growth Urban Timber Grades –

Wood Grades

Premium Select: The highest formal urban timber grade, cut from the trunk and base of the tree, ensuring maximum heartwood content and grain density. Knot content is minimal.

Original s4s

Finishes, Wood Cuts

Antique Boards, beams and dimensional lumber that were originally surfaced smooth on four sides (s4s). This original smooth surface allows for a rustic patina, without saw marks and a more refined rustic look.

Plain-Sawn

Finishes, Wood Cuts

Said of wood so sawn that the tangential face of the wood is exposed on the surface of boards; same as flat-sawn.

Porous Wood

Wood Species / Type

Wood containing pores (vessels); same as hardwood, i.e., wood produced by broad-leaved trees.

Premium Cabinet Stock

Wood Species / Type

Vertical Grain
Infrequent, small pin knots
Minimal light surface checking
Small nail holes, nail stain
Rows of nail holes/nail stains on one face OR edge possible

Premium Grade

Wood Grades

Small to medium knots
Minimal surface checking, larger dimensions expect seasoning checks/splits
Mixed Grain
Nail holes, nail stain
Rows of nail holes/nail stains on one face OR edge possible
Larger dimensions may have through bolt holes
Larger dimensions is defined as timbers 8″ and up

Premium Mixed Grain

Wood Species / Type

Small to medium size infrequent tight knots
Minimal surface checking
Small nail hole/nail stain

Premium Vertical Grain

Wood Species / Type

Infrequent, small pin knots
Minimal light surface checking
Small nail holes
Nail stains

Quartersawn

Wood Cuts

Said of wood so sawn that the radial face of the wood is exposed on the surface of boards.

Rabbet

Wood Working Terms

A step-shape recess along the edge of the work piece.

Reciprocating Saw

Tools

The blade on this power saw moves in a rapid piston like motion to make rough cuts in wood, plaster, plastic, metal, and other materials. Several types of blades are available to use with the saw; the best one to use will depend on the work. The saw may operate at a single speed, with two speeds, or with variable speed.

Reclaim –

General

To bring into or return to a suitable condition for use, as cultivation or habitation: reclaim marshlands; reclaim strip-mined land.

Recycle –

General

To put or pass through a cycle again, as for further treatment.

Redwood Tank Stock

Wood Species / Type

VINTAGE REDWOOD TANK STOCK, SALVAGED FROM DISMANTLED WINE STORAGE TANKS.
TANK STOCK MAY HAVE ANY OR ALL OF THE FOLLOWING AS EVIDENCE OF PRIOR HISTORY:
Painted or unpainted, rough sawn or surfaced;
Nail holes, bolt holes, notches, stain,checking, random dowel holes on edges;
Torn or missing edges, and other character marks. Allowing up to 7/8″ under dimension.

Roller Stand

Tools

When working with large machinery, such as the table saw, the roller stand is essential for handling large boards or panels. It consists of a large stand (a pole supported by a base) with a roller above it in a horizontal position. The roller supports the work as it is moved toward the machinery.

Rough Sawn

Wood Cuts

Wood that has been sawn with a larger blade wither originally (antique rough sawn) or by Elmwood (rough sawn cabinet lumber, for example). Rough sawn wood retains a rough, saw mark surface.

Rough Sawn Beam

Wood Species / Type

Any beam containing the original rough sawn marks from the larger milling machine(s), then aged through time.

Rustic Grade

Wood Grades

Frequent knots, all sizes, no limit in quantity
Heavy checking, heart checks expected, splits possible
Mixed Grain
Nail holes, nail stain, clusters of nail/bolt holes possible
No limit in man-made defect

s1s

Finishes, Wood Cuts

Surfaced smooth on one side (broadest face).

s2s

Finishes, Wood Cuts

Surfaced smooth on two sides (two broadest faces).

s3s

Finishes, Wood Cuts

Surfaced smooth on three sides (three broadest faces).

s4s

Finishes, Wood Cuts

Surfaced smooth on four sides (all faces).

Sap Stains (Blue Stain)

General

Stains in the sapwood caused by wood staining fungi or by the oxidation of compounds present in the living cells, usually blue or black in color.

Seasonal Increment

General

Layer of wood laid down during a given year; see annual growth.

Ship Lap

Wood Species / Type

A lip-like pattern on the edge of a board so that each board may overlap and interlock with the next. A very common edge pattern found on barn and home siding.

Softwood

Wood Species / Type

Wood produced by coniferous trees; same as non-porous wood.

Square Foot (Sq/Ft)

Measurements

– The standard unit of measurement of any product that covers a surface area measuring 12”x12” (two dimensional measurement). Thickness of any product charged by the square foot is either standardized (such as ¾” for flooring) or irrelevant (such as the varying thickness of barn siding).

Squared Edge

Wood Cuts

A line ripped and squared edge of a board that has no interlocking pattern. A very traditional look for a colonial reproduction wide plank floor.

Standard Grade

Wood Grades

Medium to Large Scattered Knots
Regular drying checks, seasoning checks possible
Mixed Grain
Nail holes, bolt holes
Rows of nail holes/nail stains on one face AND edge possible
Larger dimensions may have through bolt holes
Larger dimensions is defined as timbers 8″ and up

Straight Grain

Wood Species / Type

Grain in which the direction of the fiber alignment is straight or nearly so; grain in which fiber alignment is vertical or nearly so in the standing tree.

Surface Washed

Wood Species / Type

Antique lumber/timber that is rinsed with a high pressure power washer to remove dirt, oils and loose debris. Power washing is the safest and most effective way to clean antique wood without damaging or removing original surface.

Tenon

Wood Working Terms

A projecting rectangular tongue, which often fits into a matching mortise to form a joint.

Texture of Wood

General

Expression that refers to the size and the proportional amounts of woody elements; in the hardwoods, the tangential diameters and numbers of vessels and rays. Expressed as coarse, fine, medium or perhaps grainy.

Throat

Wood Working Terms

The distance between the jaw, head, or blade of a tool and its frame.

Tongue & Groove

Finishes

The traditional flooring mold so that each plan can fit and interlock together in a rigid, flush and uniform pattern.

Torque

General

A turning or twisting force.

Twisting

General

Warping in which one corner of a piece of wood twists out of the plane of the other tree.

Warping

General

Any distortion in a piece of wood from its true plane that may occur in seasoning.

Wire Brush

Tools

A wire brush shaped similarly to a dustpan is ideal for scraping away caked-on oil and other debris on machinery parts, cleaning bolt and screw threads, and removing paint and rust from metal surfaces. The best ones have at least three rows of bristles and an offset handle.

Wood Burning Iron

Tools

This is used to create designs of wood. An electrical element heats the tip of this tool, which darkens the color of the wood. The tool has interchangeable tips; some models have a rheostat to adjust the temperature of the tool.

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